TLS Editor

Summary

The TLS Editor toolbar contains functions for checking the results of individual tree segmentation routines run on Terrestrial Laser Scan (TLS) input data. The TLS Editor is also used to extract Diameter at Breast Height (DBH) for individual trees, to add or delete seed points, to execute point cloud segmentation operations that include seed points, and to measure physical attributes of individual trees found in the source dataset.

Usage

Load the point could data to be edited into the viewer and activate the view window.

Navigate to and click on TLS Forest > TLS Editor to load the TLS Editor toolbar in the active view window.

TLS Editor

TLS Editor

TLS Editor toolbar functions (from left to right): Start/End Editing/Open Seed Point File/Save Seed Point File, Fit DBH, Batch DBH Extraction, Methods of Fitting DBH (including Fit Circle, Fit Column and Fit Ellipse), Select, Subtract, Cancel Selection, Select Point Cloud, Select Seed Points, Add Seed Points, Delete Seed Points, Clear All Seed Points, Profile, Measure Individual Tree Attributes, Filter Trees, Point Cloud Segmentation Based on Seed, Clear Tree ID, Setting and Exit.

TLS Editor Tool Description

Start/End Edit

To begin editing session navigate to and click on Editor > Start Edit.

TLS Editor

Select the data to be edited (this should be already be normalized, and only one dataset can be edited at a time). Click “OK”, then a setting window will pop up to set the color and size of the seed point, whether to display the ID, and the height of point cloud for display. The default point cloud height for display is 1.2 - 1.4 meters.

TLS Editor

TLS Editor

In the process of editing, the selected data cannot be removed from the window. Click “End Edit” to complete the editing, and other functions in the toolbar will then be unavailable.

Open Seed Points File

Brief: Select a seed point file (please refer to Seed Points File in the appendix) for the format of seed point file, and the window below will pop up. Please note that there is a header line in the seed point file, therefore, the first line should be ignored when the file is opened.

TLS Editor

TLS Editor

Save Seed Points File

Brief:When editing is completed, the seed points can be saved as a new .csv file without overwriting the original file.

Fit DBH

Brief: Select the desired individual tree for DBH fitting.

The picture below (left) is the result of selecting the point cloud data of an individual tree. The picture below (right) is the result of DBH fitting: 1 indicates ID number, 0.5889 is the fitted DBH value in meters.

TLS Editor

Batch Extraction DBH

Brief: Select the point cloud data of multiple trees and then perform batch fitting of tree DBH (the parameter settings are shown as below). By default, the function uses the entire point cloud in the window for batch DBH fitting. Users can also select out a part of point cloud for fitting.

TLS Editor
  • Min Points Number (default value is "10"): Minimum threshold for the number of trees of each category. If the number is less than this value, then no DBH fitting will be conducted.

The picture below (left) is the result of selecting the point cloud data of multiple trees. The picture below (right) is the result of DBH fitting: 1,2,3 and 4 indicate ID number, 0.5359, 0.5130, 0.6078 and 0.4756 are the fitted DBH value in meters.

TLS Editor

Methods of Fitting DBH

Brief: Users can flexibly select the point cloud in a 2D window by setting a height or using the profile window for DBH fitting. Methods of fitting DBH include Fitting by Circle, Fitting by Column and Fitting by Ellipse. By default, the method of Fitting by Circle is adopted. If the tree is slanting, the Fitting by Cylinder method can be used.

TLS Editor
  • Fit Circle (optional): Use the least squares method to the fit a circle from the x-y coordinates of input points.
  • Fit Column: Use the least squares method to fit a three-dimensional cylinder from input points where the diameter is the DBH of the tree.
  • Fit Ellipse: Use the least squares method to fit an ellipse from the x-y coordinates of input points, and the DBH will be calculated as 2 sqrt(major axis minor axis). This method is for trees with an oval-shaped trunk.

Select

Brief: Select traget by using polygon, rectangle, or circle frame. Select point cloud or seed point to fit the DBH. For over-segmentation, users can select these wrong seed points and delete them.

Subtract

Brief: If there are point clouds or seed points selected by mistake, this tool can be used to delete the wrong ones from the selected range.

Cancel Selection

Brief:Deselect point clouds or seed points.

Select Point Cloud

Brief: Select point cloud to fit DBH.

Select Seed Points

Brief: Select seed points for editing.

Add Seed Points

Brief: Add seed points manually in under-segmented places. Users are normally prompted to select the peak or the point close to the peak of a tree as the seed point.

Delete Seed Points

Brief: For places that are over-segmented, wrong seed points can be selected and deleted by using the Select tool.

Clear All Seed Points

Brief: Remove all seed points in the window.

Profile

Brief: When the TLS Editor toolbar is opened, the point cloud window will change to 2D display mode. The profile tool can show if the seed points are accurate in 3D. Click the Profile Tool button and a new window will appear. Click the mouse left button to select a polygon, and all points within the polygon will be displayed in the new window in 3D.

TLS Editor

Pan Profile

Brief: After drawing the profile area in the main window, users can translate the profiled area by clicking this tool, and see the profile data in real-time.

Measure Individual Tree Attributes

Brief: Click this button to open a profile window to measure the attributes of individual trees, including tree height, CBH, straightness etc., and save the attribute information into a file. If the Editor of Tree Attributes is activated, change of seed points will not update the attribute table of tree information. If users need to see the updates, re-open the editor window.

TLS Editor

TLS Editor

: Click this button to save the edited tree attributes to a .csv file.

: (Available under the profile window) Return to the previous record and the profile window will zoom to the tree point cloud jumped to. (Hotkey: ←)

: (Available under the profile window) Go to the next record of current one. And the profile window will zoom to the tree point cloud jumped to. (Hotkey: →)

: Calculate the straightness of a tree: Users need to select out the point cloud of the tree to be calculated in the profile window. Then, according to the calculating standard of tree straightness proposed by Macdonald E et al., the height of the selected point cloud must be higher than 6 meters. If the straightness information has not been updated after calculation, right click on the cell to refresh.

TLS Editor

TLS Editor



: Length measurement, to measure tree attributes (e.g. tree height) in the profile window.

: Area measurement, to measure tree attributes (e.g. crown area, crown diameter) in the profile window. The crown diameter can be derived from the formula S=πr², in which S is the circle area fitted from the measured crown area and r is the corresponding crown radius.

TLS Editor



: Height measurement, to measure tree attributes (e.g. tree height, crown base height) in the profile window.

TLS Editor
  • Profile Radius:Adjust the radius of hexagon in the profile window.

Note: Users must ensure there are seed points in the window before measuring individual tree attributes. If there is no update to edited tree attributes, users can right click on the corresponding cell to refresh (Hotkey: F5).

DBH Inspector

Brief: This tool is used to check if the overlapped DBHs exsit in the data.

It is shown as follow when this function is activated:

TLSInspector

Filter Trees

Brief: The individual tree filtering tool is used for manually examining or editing DBH fitting or individual tree segmentation results. Based on the user-defined filtering range, users can display, hide, delete, extract and highlight individual trees. The filtering methods are based on confidence level (only for DBH batch fitting results), tree ID, DBH, and tree height (only for individual tree segmentation results).

As shown below, after individual tree segmentation, use the filtering by tree ID method and set the minimum and maximum values as 1 and 10, respectively. The points within this range will be highlighted.

TLS Editor

Point Cloud Segmentation Based on Seed

Brief: Segment the point cloud data based on the edited seed points. Refer to PCS with Seeds. The tree heights will be recalculated after tree segmentation.

Clear Tree ID

Brief: If the point cloud data has been segmented already, the TreeID should be removed prior to reperforming individual tree segmentation. Refer to Clear Tree ID.

Setting

Brief: Includes seed point setting and height setting for point cloud display.

TLS Editor

TLS Editor
  • Show Point Cloud Height: Set the height for point cloud display in the window. The default height for point cloud display is 1.2-1.4 meters, i.e., the point cloud at the height of a tree’s DBH.
    • Min Height (meter)(default value is "1.2"): The minimum height of the point cloud displayed in the window. The default is 1.2 meters.
    • Max Height (meter)(default value is "1.4"): The maximum height of the point cloud displayed in the window. The default is 1.4 meters.
    • Lidar360 Up: Increase the display range according to user's input. The range of visualization height will be from Minimum Height minus user's input to Maximum Height plus user's input.
    • Lidar360 Down: Decrease the display range according to user's input. The range of visualization height will be from Minimum Height plus user's input to Maximum Height minus user's input.
  • DBH Configuration
    • Minimum DBH (meter)(default value is "0.05"): The minimum DBH value based on user's prior knowledge. If the DBH of a tree is smaller than this value, the fitted DBH will be treated as an error.
    • Maximum DBH (meter)(default value is "1.00"): The maximum DBH value based on user's prior knowledge. If the DBH of a tree is larger than this value, the fitted DBH will be treated as an error.
    • Maximum tree inclination angle (degree)(default value is "30"): The maximum tree inclination angle based on user's prior knowledge. If the inclination angle of a tree is larger than this value, the corresponding points will not be treated as a tree. Note that this threshold is only effective to the method of Fit Column.
  • Seed Setting: Seed point setting includes the color, alpha and size of the seed points, and whether the seed point ID and its label size are shown.

    • Color (default color is "Red"): Click , and then the dialog for selecting colors will pop up as shown below. Any color can be selected as the seed point color from this window.

    • Alpha (default value is "0.5"): Transparency of the seed point, ranging from 0 to 1, with 0 being completely transparent and 1 being opaque. The default value is 0.5. Click , and the value will be incremented or decremented by 0.1; or one can directly enter a specific value.

    • Display Label: Set if display the label of the Seed ID in the window.
    • Label Size (default value is "1"):The label size, ranging from [0, 100). Click , and the value will be incremented or decremented by 1; or you can directly enter a specific value.
    • Show Seed ID (optional): Use the check box to determine if the seed point ID is displayed in the window.
    • Size (default value is "0.2"): The seed size, ranging from [0,100). Click , and the value will be incremented or decremented by 1; or one can directly enter a specific value.
  • Confidence Level: Estimate the confidence level of batch fitted DBH values, and visualize the fitting results with different confidence levels using different user-defined colors.
    • Low Confidence Level: The DBH fitting results is poor, and users need to visually examine and edit the results to improve the fitting accuracy. Users can set the visualization color.
    • Medium Confidence Level: The DBH fitting results is medium, and users may need to visually examine and edit the results if necessary. Users can set the visualization color.
    • High Confidence Level: The DBH fitting results is very good. Note that if only a single tree was fitted, the default confident level will be set as high.

      Note that if the visualization height range is larger than 0.4 m when fitting the DBH in batch, LiDAR 360 will use a more strict method to estimate the confidence level. This method usually performed better for trees with a long trunk.

Exit

Brief: To exit TLS Editor, click the exit button and a prompt window will pop up. Click “Yes” to close the TLS Editor toolbar, or click “No” to return to the editor window.

TLS Editor

Note: If the point cloud has been segmented, you need to Clear Tree ID before being segmented again. Otherwise, the message "All files have been segmented, please clear tree ID first!" will prompt.

    @inproceedings{
        author={ Macdonald E, Mochan S},
        title={Protocol for stem straightness assessment in Sitka spruce},
        booktitle={Journal of Bacteriology,176(17):5578-82},
        year={2000}
    }

results matching ""

    No results matching ""